Total Productive Maintenance
chapter examines one of the most misunderstood and misapplied concepts in
modern organizations. Total productive maintenance is not as much a maintenance
initiative or improvement program as it is a strategic operational philosophy.
productive maintenance (TPM) involves everyone in the organization, from
operators to top management, in equipment improvement.
improvement does not just mean incremental improvements, but also optimum
utilization of the equipment. The goal is to eliminate all equipment losses.
There are many theories on exact number of equipment losses, but the basic six
to eliminate are:
Set up and adjustment losses
Idling and minor stoppage losses
Start up and shutdown losses
Reduced speed or capacity losses
Quality defects or rework
goal is to eliminate all of these losses from the equipment operation, thus
insuring maximum overall equipment efficiency. Eliminating these losses is
beyond the ability of any one department. Therefore, TPM is an operational
philosophy. All departments that impact the utilization of the equipment in
some manner are involved; all must be part of the TPM program. Figure 11.1
illustrates the TPM philosophy.
shown by the graphic, all departments must focus on how they impact the equipment.
The diagram is the same as the one used to illustrate the Total Quality
Management (TQM) process, except that instead of focusing on the product, TPM
focuses on the equipment. In fact, companies that were successful with TQM are
usually successful with the TPM process. However, those companies who typically
had difficulties with TQM also have difficulty with TPM.
one of the biggest problems facing TPM is one that created problems for Total
Quality Management as well: downsizing. Downsizing undermines employee
motivation, which is a critical success factor for TPM implementation and
continuance. If there are not sufficient, highly-motivated, and highly-skilled
employees involved, TPM has little chance of succeeding.
TPM is an operational philosophy, then what are the goals and objectives for
the process? There is really one goal (some call them pillars) and four
supporting initiatives. The goal is to continuously improve equipment
effectiveness. The company wants to insure that nowhere in the world does any
other company have the same equipment or processes that it has or is able to
get more throughput out of the equipment or processes than it can. Otherwise,
that competitor will be the low-cost producer, leaving the company in second
common illustration compares your equipment and process with a NASCAR racing
team. In a NASCAR event, all of the cars are basically the same, just as your
company and your competitors have basically the same equipment. The winner is
determined by how the team, (pit crew, design engi-
driver, fabrication technicians, etc.) works together and focuses on winning
the race. The low-cost producer in competitive markets today is determined by
how the organization works together and focuses on getting more out of the same
assets as its competitors. This focus is the philosophy of TPM.
philosophy is supported by four other improvement activities.
maintenance efficiency and effectiveness.
on early equipment management and maintenance prevention.
to improve the skills of all personnel involved.
the operators in some daily maintenance on their equipment.
maintenance efficiency and effectiveness insures that the maintenance
department is as effective and efficient as a NASCAR pit crew. The performance
of a pit crew is measured in tenths of a second. Any wasted time during a pit
stop, as little as one tenth of a second, can mean the difference between
winning and losing. One tenth of a second crossing the finish line is two car
lengths. Races are won and lost every season by two car lengths. How much time
do the maintenance crews for your company waste each day? Enough to make a
difference in profit or loss to your bottom line?
on early equipment management and maintenance prevention means examining
equipment for ways to make it more maintainable or eliminate the maintenance
activity completely. New automobiles are the best example of this activity.
Compared to the models in the 1970s, the cars need less maintenance (tune ups),
yet performance is not sacrificed. Design changes were made based on
engineering studies. The same can apply with production equipment in plants
today. Engineering studies can be made to find better materials, methods, and
even ways to make maintenance faster to perform.
has been mentioned in an earlier chapter. It is critical to train employees for
the new tasks that they will be performing. Without training, the tasks will be
performed partially or incorrectly. This leads to poor results, and may
actually create equipment problems. Any time operators are asked to perform new
tasks, they must be trained.
the operators in some daily maintenance on their equipment, as mentioned
previously, is designed to relieve some of the maintenance technician’s time to
concentrate on higher-level activities. However, the focus here is also to
involve the operators in tasks that make the equipment perform better. Again,
the focus on continuously improving equipment effectiveness must never be lost
when defining the task for operators.
TPM really is an operating philosophy, what are some of the performance
measures for TPM? The following are some suggested indicators.