industry to operate effectively, the material that produces the final product
must be machined and formed quickly and accurately. The key factors that affect
the efficiency of a metal-removal process are the machine tool, the controller,
spindle, toolholder, cutting tool, and CNC programming. High Speed Machining
(HSM) uses high spindle speeds, high feed rates, and light depths of cut to
increase productivity, reduce lead time, reduce warping, increase part
accuracy, and improve surface quality.
virtually all metal-removal operations, manufacturers are trying to reduce the
amount of time a part is moved from machine to machine and perform more
operations in a single workpiece setup. This has led to the development of new machine
tools such as the turning center with live tooling and special workholding
fixtures where both turning and milling operations can be performed in one part
(Steve Krar, Consultant – Kelmar Associates)
the years, many developments helped to improve the metal-removal rate and
increase the flexibility of conventional OD cylindrical grinding operations.
The development of superabrasive wheels greatly increased metal-removal rates,
however the parts produced were limited to the shape of the grinding wheel.
Therefore these parts had straight or angular forms and it was not possible to
produce contour forms without dressing the wheel to the form required.
grinding is a process that combines two technologies - superabrasive grinding
wheels and high-precision servo control - to provide a contour grinding process
that resembles a computer numerical control (CNC) outside diameter (OD) turning
operation. It allows one machine to perform several operations such as grinding
parallel diameters, tapers, contours, and threads without removing the part
from the machine. Performing more operations on a part in one setup
reduces the amount of workhandling between operations. For many medium OD
grinding applications, it is a means of combining several grinding applications
and machines into a single step.
THE GRINDING PROCESS
basic idea for single-point grinding comes from the modern CNC turning center
where a single-point cutting tool can be used to perform various operations.
For example, one single-point tool can profile, face, plunge, and cut threads.
single-point OD grinding machine is similar to a turning center since two axes
of movement are generally involved in both metal-removal processes. On turning
centers a form tool can be used to cut profiles, or a single-point cutter can
be programmed to follow a desired profile through the coordinated movements of
the X and Z axis, Fig. 2-2-1.
Single-point grinding combines
two technologies to grind parallel diameters, tapers, contours, threads, etc.
(Junker Machinery Inc.)